Onyechi A.U.1 and Afieroho M.C.
1 Department of Home Science, Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Nigeria, Nsukka,
2 Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital, Enugu
Corresponding authors email: [email protected]
Background: Readily available high-fiber, low glycaemic index local foods like mushrooms could help in reducing the global burden of diabetes.
Objective: This study compared the blood glucose response of normoglycaemic adults fed formulated wheat flour based biscuits supplemented separately with four common food samples.
Materials and Methods: Using traditional methods, the food items: mushroom (Pleurotus tuber regium fruiting body), plantain (Musa paradisiaca), soyabean (Glycine max), and mahogany bean (Afzelia africana) used to supplement wheat in this study were processed and blended into composite flour (containing 50g available carbohydrate): Mushroom and wheat flour (MW), plantain and wheat flour (PW), soybean and wheat flour (SW), and mahogany bean and wheat flour (MBW). Date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) was used as a sweetener. Proximate analysis of the formulated biscuits was done using standard method. Twenty and twelve healthy adult human subjects participated in the organoleptic and blood glucose response study respectively. Statistical analysis was done using analyses of variance (ANOVA) at p<0.05 and Duncans new multiple range test.
Results: Compared to other three biscuits, the biscuit MW had the highest crude fiber and the least carbohydrate and fat contents. Of the four biscuits, PW had the best organoleptic acceptability. The MW biscuit significantly lowered the blood glucose when compared to SW (P<0.05, 0.0054) and MBW (p<0.05, 0.002) after 120 minutes. However there was no significant difference in the blood glucose response between MW and PW (p>0.05, 0.0677). The mean AUC was lowest for MW and PW.
Conclusion: The incorporation of mushroom flour to wheat flour in this study, improved the nutrient content of the biscuits without significantly increasing the blood glucose response. This makes it suitable for diabetic patients. Also the addition of mushroom in biscuit has a greater potential in overcoming protein-calorie malnutrition.