Amadi, Joy A.C
Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Imo State University P.M.B. 2000, Owerri, Nigeria.
Corresponding email: [email protected] +2347030987007
Background: Consumption of snacks such as cookies is increasing in recent times especially in developing countries such as Nigeria. Most of these snacks are lacking in micronutrients which could lead to hidden hunger.
Objective: To produce and determine the chemical composition and sensory attributes of cookies with moringa leaves.
Methods: Moringaoleifera leaves were gotten from Imo State University farm, Nigeria. Baking ingredients were purchased from Owerri main market, Imo state. The moringa leaves were sorted, washed, dried and milled into flour and packaged in an airtight container prior to analysis. The cookies produced from wheat flour was fortified with moringa leaves using standard procedures in the proportion of 100:0% (WC-A), 98:2% (WMC-B), 95:5% (WMCC) and 90:10% (WMC-D). Proximate, micronutrient, phytochemical and sensory evaluations were determined using standard methods. Statistical package for social sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 was used in analyzing the data.
Results: Significant (P<0.05) increase was observed in the proximate composition ranging from 5.67%-6.30% (moisture), 13.44%-17.03% (protein), 2.14%-2.62% (fat), 3.40%-4.84% (ash), 4.7%-6.17% (fiber) and 63.38%70.67% (carbohydrate). Mineral content of the samples shows significant increase (P<0.05) as the substitution of moringa leaves increases on calcium, potassium, manganese, zinc, phosphorous, magnesium and copper ranging from 24.4-58.2mg/100g, 315.14-496.08mg/100g, 15.63-31.48mg/100g, 2.99-3.49mg/100g, 211.31-229.30mg/100g, 205.42-214.08mg/100g and 0.97- 2.30mg/100g respectively. Vitamin composition of the samples shows that values significantly increased from 0.39mg/100g-0.86mg/100g (vitamin A), and 1.15mg/100g-2.00mg/100g (vitamin C). The phytochemical composition of the cookies significantly decreased (P<0.05) ranging from 0.012mg/100g to 0.022mg/100g (alkaloid) and 0.20mg/100g to 0.010mg/100g (tannin) but increased in flavonoid 0.445mg/100g to 0.685mg/100g. The sensory attributes of the cookies WC-A, WMC-B, and WMC-C were significantly (P<0.05) similar but significantly (P<0.05) different from WMC-D. The fortification of moringa leaves in cookies production should be encouraged.
Conclusion: Moringa leaves improved the nutrient content of the cookies and can be used as fortificants in cookies production.