Nutrient Composition Of Biscuit Made From Yellow Cocoyam (Colocasia Esculenta), Yam (Discorea Rotundata), Cassava (Manihot Esculenta) And Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) Composite Flour
Ogbonna, P.C.1 , *Maduforo, A.N.2 , Onyema, J.U1 ., Ndupuechi, C.U.1 , Adedokun, I.I3 ., and Obiloma, A.A.1
1Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo.
2Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Nigeria Nsukka.
3 Department of Food Science and Technology, Imo State Polytechnic Umuagwo.
⃰Corresponding author: [email protected]
Background: Tubers especially cocoyam is highly underutilized and considered food for the poor in Nigeria. The
study evaluated the nutritional potentials of these tubers and how to increase the utilization in the production of biscuits which is widely consumed by all age groups. The proximate, mineral and vitamin composition of biscuit made from yellow cocoyam, yam, cassava and wheat composite flour was determined.
Materials and Methods: The tubers were processed into flour using standard method. The biscuits were made using standard recipe and labelled: Sample A (50%cocoyam, 20% yam, 20% cassava, 10% wheat), Sample B (60%cocoyam, 10% yam, 10% cassava, 20% wheat), Sample C (40%cocoyam, 20% yam, 20% cassava, 10% wheat) and Sample D (100%cocoyam). The proximate, mineral and vitamin composition of samples were determined using standard analytical procedures. Data was analyzed and compared statistically using one-way analysis of variance.
Results: The result shows that the value of carbohydrate ranged from 60.44% in sample B to 66.3% in sample D.
Protein content was highest in sample B (19.96%) while sample C had the least value of 13.1%. Fat level differed
significantly among the samples (P<0.05) with sample A having the highest value of 16.96%. Moisture level was
highest in sample D (4.44%), crude fibre was most found in sample A (2.01%) while sample C contained the highest
value of ash (3.81%). Mineral results showed that copper in all samples significantly differed, with sample A having
the highest value 5.96mg/100g. Zinc levels varied from 23.30mg/100g in sample C to 36.80 mg/100g in sample A.
There was significant difference (p˂0.05) in potassium values among the samples. Sodium was highest in sample
C(0.81mg/100g), calcium was highest found in sample B (0.096mg/100g) and least in sample C (0.002mg/100g). Iron levels ranged from 53.51mg/100g in sample D to 59.03mg/100g sample A. Beta carotene content of sample C was highest(0.21mg/100g) followed sample B (0.16mg/100g). Vitamin B2 ranged from 1.89mg/100g in sample D to 3.63 in sample C. The value of vitamin C differed significantly among the samples ranging from 1.76mg/100gin sample A to 2.89mg/100g in sample C.
Conclusion: Commercial bakers in Nigeria can incorporate local flours in baking to improve the mineral contents of the products especially iron with reduced sodium content. This will as well enhance dietary diversification and
utilization of local crops.
Keywords: Cocoyam, Yam, Cassava, Wheat, biscuits