*Akujobi, I.C., Afam-Anene, O.C, Nnoka, K., Okafor, G.O. and Ochonma, H. C.
1.Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Imo State University Owerri.
2.Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Federal Polytechnic Ede.
*Corresponding author: [email protected]
Background: Fermentation improves the nutritional value, acceptability and safety of foods.
Objective: This study assessed the effect of fermentation on the chemical composition of wheat and maize flours and consumer acceptability of biscuits made from their flours.
Methods: Fermentation of wheat and maize: Wheat and maize grains were sorted respectively and were divided into five parts of 200g each. They were labelled as W,W,W,W and W for wheat and M,M M,M and M for 0 1 2 3 4 0 1, 2 3 4 maize samples. Each sample was washed with tap water three times. W and M were not fermented while W,W,W 0 0 1 2 3 and W and M M,M and M were soaked in 500mls of water in a bowl and were fermented for 24 hours, 48 hours, 4 1, 2 3 4 72 hours and 96 hours respectively. The flour of each sample was used for baking biscuits. Proximate, mineral and vitamin content of the flour samples and the sensory properties of the biscuits produced from their flour were evaluated using standard analytical methods. One way analysis of variance and Duncan’s multiple range test were used to separate the means among the samples.
Result: The highest ash (2.14%), crude fibre (2.03%) and fat (4.24%) values were observed in sample M. Sample 0 M, W and W had the highest moisture (9.67%), protein (11.62%) and carbohydrate (77.89%) values respectively. 4 4 0 Sample M had the highest magnesium (35.62mg), potassium (162.59mg) and sodium (13.79mg) values, M had 0 1 the highest iron (0.76mg) content while the highest calcium (18.77mg) zinc (0.75mg) and phosphorus (132.59mg) values were observed in sample W. The highest vitamin B (0.59mg), vitamin B (0.24mg), vitamin A (18.76µg) 0 1 3 and folic acid (41.64mg) were observed in sample M while the highest vitamin B (0.04mg) value was found in 0 2 both sample M and sample M Sample W had the highest vitamin C (6.36mg) and vitamin B(1.87mg) content. 0 1. 0 6 There was no significant(p>0.05) difference in the acceptability of the biscuit samples. However, the taste, aroma, texture and general acceptability of the biscuits produced from all the samples had appreciable ratings.
Conclusion: Fermentation improved the nutritional quality of cereals while biscuits produced from fermented cereals were generally acceptable.